Schlagwort-Archive: #law

Law, For other uses, see Law (disambiguation) and Legal (disambiguation). „Legal concept“. redirects here.Law is a system of rules that are enforced through social institutions to govern behaviour.[2] Laws can be made by legislatures through legislation (resulting in statutes), the executive through decrees and regulations, or judges through binding precedent (normally in common law jurisdictions). Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including (in some jurisdictions) arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution (written or unwritten) and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics, and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. A general distinction can be made between (a) civil law jurisdictions (including canon and socialist law), in which the legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, and (b) common law systems, where judge-made precedent is accepted as binding law. Historically, religious laws played a significant role even in settling of secular matters, which is still the case in some religious communities, particularly Jewish, and some countries, particularly Islamic. Islamic Sharia law is the world’s most widely used religious law. The adjudication of the law is generally divided into two main areas referred to as (i) Criminal law and (ii) Civil law. Criminal law deals with conduct that is considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined. Civil law (not to be confused with civil law jurisdictions above) deals with the resolution of lawsuits (disputes) between individuals or organizations. These resolutions seek to provide a legal remedy (often monetary damages) to the winning litigant. Under civil law, the following specialties, among others, exist: Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus ticket to trading on derivatives markets. Property law regulates the transfer and title of personal property and real property. Trust law applies to assets held for investment and financial security. Tort law allows claims for compensation if a person’s property is harmed. Constitutional law provides a framework for the creation of law, the protection of human rights and the election of political representatives. Administrative law governs what executive branch agencies may and may not do, procedures that they must follow to do it, and judicial review when a member of the public is harmed by an agency action. International law governs affairs between sovereign states in activities ranging from trade to military action. To implement and enforce the law and provide services to the public by public servants, a government’s bureaucracy, military, and police are vital. While all these organs of the state are creatures created and bound by law, an independent legal profession and a vibrant civil society inform and support their progress[citation needed]. Law provides a rich source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, philosophy, economic analysis and sociology. Law also raises important and complex issues concerning equality, fairness, and justice. There is an old saying that ‚all are equal before the law‘. In 1894, the author Anatole France said sarcastically, „In its majestic equality, the law forbids rich and poor alike to sleep under bridges, beg in the streets, and steal loaves of bread.“[4] Writing in 350 BC, the Greek philosopher Aristotle declared, „The rule of law is better than the rule of any individual.“[5] Mikhail Bakunin said: „All law has for its object to confirm and exalt into a system the exploitation of the workers by a ruling class“.[6] Cicero said „more law, less justice“.[7] Marxist doctrine asserts that law will not be required once the state has withered away. Main articles: Definition of law and Analytical jurisprudence, Mainstream definitions Numerous definitions of law have been put forward over the centuries. The Third New International Dictionary from Merriam-Webster[9] defines law as: „Law is a binding custom or practice of a community; a rule or mode of conduct or action that is prescribed or formally recognized as binding by a supreme controlling authority or is made obligatory by a sanction (as an edict, decree, rescript, order, ordinance, statute, resolution, rule, judicial decision, or usage) made, recognized, or enforced by the controlling authority.“ The Dictionary of the History of Ideas published by Scribner’s in 1973 defined the concept of law accordingly as: „A legal system is the most explicit, institutionalized, and complex mode of regulating human conduct. At the same time it plays only one part in the congeries of rules which influence behavior, for social and moral rules of a less institutionalized kind are also of great importance.“ Whether it is possible or desirable to define law There have been many attempts to produce „a universally acceptable definition of law“. In 1972, one source indicated that no such definition could be produced.[11] Glanville Williams said that the meaning of the word „law“ depends on the context in which that word is used. He said that, for example, „early customary law“ and „municipal law“ were contexts where the word „law“ had two different and irreconcilable meanings.[12] Thurman Arnold said that it is obvious that it is impossible to define the word „law“ and that it is also equally obvious that the struggle to define that word should not ever be abandoned.[13] It is possible to take the view that there is no need to define the word „law“ (e.g. „let’s forget about generalities and get down to cases“). Legal subjects All legal systems deal with the same basic issues, but jurisdictions categorise and identify its legal subjects in different ways. A common distinction is that between „public law“ (a term related closely to the state, and including constitutional, administrative and criminal law), and „private law“ (which covers contract, tort and property).[15] In civil law systems, contract and tort fall under a general law of obligations, while trusts law is dealt with under statutory regimes or international conventions. International, constitutional and administrative law, criminal law, contract, tort, property law and trusts are regarded as the „traditional core subjects“,[16] although there are many further disciplines. Public international law concerns relationships between sovereign nations. The sources for public international law development are custom, practice and treaties between sovereign nations, such as the Geneva Conventions. Public international law can be formed by international organisations, such as the United Nations (which was established after the failure of the League of Nations to prevent the Second World War),[17] the International Labour Organisation, the World Trade Organisation, or the International Monetary Fund. Public international law has a special status as law because there is no international police force, and courts (e.g. the International Court of Justice as the primary UN judicial organ) lack the capacity to penalise disobedience.[18] However, a few bodies, such as the WTO, have effective systems of binding arbitration and dispute resolution backed up by trade sanctions.[19]
Conflict of laws (or „private international law“ in civil law countries) concerns which jurisdiction a legal dispute between private parties should be heard in and which jurisdiction’s law should be applied. Today, businesses are increasingly capable of shifting capital and labour supply chains across borders, as well as trading with overseas businesses, making the question of which country has jurisdiction even more pressing. Increasing numbers of businesses opt for commercial arbitration under the New York Convention 1958.[20]
European Union law is the first and, so far, only example of an internationally accepted legal system other than the UN and the World Trade Organisation. Given the trend of increasing global economic integration, many regional agreements—especially the Union of South American Nations—are on track to follow the same model. In the EU, sovereign nations have gathered their authority in a system of courts and political institutions. These institutions are allowed the ability to enforce legal norms both against or for member states and citizens in a manner which is not possible through public international law.[21] As the European Court of Justice said in the 1960s, European Union law constitutes „a new legal order of international law“ for the mutual social and economic benefit of the member states.Quelle:

Strategie | Digitalisierung erfordert neue Sourcing-Konzepte


#strategie, Spannungsfeld aus Personalmangel, Einführung


Die Digitalisierung verändert alles. Sie beeinflusst die Kernprozesse der Unternehmen und ordnet etablierte Unternehmensstrukturen neu. Bisherige Geschäftsmodelle werden umgestaltet und digitalisiert. Der Technologiesprung hin zu Big Data, Cloud und Mobile führt zu andersartigen Möglichkeiten der Vermarktung von Produkten und Services sowie der Art der internen Leistungserbringung und Zusammenarbeit. Die IT überwindet dabei seit einigen Jahren die Grenzen starrer und unflexibler Geschäftsprozesse und wird zu einem weiteren Produktionsfaktor. Die Digitalisierung, auch als vierte industrielle Revolution bezeichnet, verändert die bisherigen Sourcing-Strategien der Unternehmen.

Ein bedeutendes Element sind dabei „Business Innovation/Transformation Partner“ als Dienstleistungspartner. Sie decken in ihrem Portfolio die gesamte Wertschöpfungskette ab, von der Management-/IT-Beratung über die Systemrealisierung/-integration bis hin zum Betrieb von IT-Systemen.


Wissensmanagement | Wie komme ich schnell und einfach an die wichtigen Informationen? Und wer entscheidet was für mich im Intranet als „wichtig“ einzustufen ist?

Eine der größten Herausforderungen der modernen Intranets heutzutage ist der Information Overload. Wenn früher das klassische Intranet hauptsächlich als Mittel für eine 1:n Push-Kommunikation genutzt wurde, ist eines der Hauptziele eines Social Intranets, jedem einzelnen Mitarbeiter das freie Erstellen von Inhalten zu ermöglichen. Der Mitarbeiter wird von einem reinen Konsumenten zu Autor und Mitgestalter des Intranets. Somit entsteht eine enorme Menge an nutzergenerierten Inhalten, was dazu führt, dass man schnell den Überblick verliert. Je mehr Funktionalitäten ein Intranet bündelt (Blogs, Wikis, Dokumente, Projekträume, Interessensgruppen etc.), desto größer wird dieser Informationsfluss und desto schwieriger ist es, sich im Intranet zurechtzufinden. Der alltägliche Arbeitsprozess im Unternehmen erfordert an erster Stelle den mühelosen Zugriff auf die für mich relevanten Daten, was aus den oben genannten Gründen zu einer großen Herausforderung wird.

Wie komme ich schnell und einfach an die wichtigen Informationen? Und wer entscheidet was für mich im Intranet als „wichtig“ einzustufen ist? 

Personalisierte Dashboards bieten eine Lösung für diese beiden Probleme.




Social Media Studie | Warum Social Media Marketing fast immer sinnvoll ist?

„Warum Social-Media-Marketing“ – diese Keyword-Phrase erzielt bei Google mehr Treffer als die Suchwortkombinationen „Social-Media Marketing“, „Social-Media-Agentur“ oder „Social-Media-Strategie“.Verwunderlich? Nicht wirklich.Die wichtigste Frage für Entscheider ist und bleibt: „Warum soll ich für mein Unternehmen Social-Media Marketing einsetzen?“, so Philipp Hüwe und Tomas Renner Jones.

Laut der aktuellen Studie des BVDW „Social Media in Unternehmen“ setzen 38 Prozent aller Unternehmen in Deutschland Social Media ein. Große Erfolge erzielten die Unternehmen dabei zu 63 Prozent in der Kundenbetreuung, 61 Prozent in der Kundenbindung und 57 Prozent im Einsatz von Werbemaßnahmen. Von den 56 Prozent der Unternehmen, die im Bereich Social Media bisher noch nicht aktiv geworden sind, sehen 24 Prozent keine Relevanz für ihre Kundenzielgruppe, 18 Prozent meinen ihr Produkt dort nicht platzieren zu können. Weiter zur vollständigen Studie

Kanzlei Wissensmanagement | Wissenseffizienz

Die tägliche Suche nach Dokumenten und Dateien raubt den Mitarbeitern in den Kanzleien aus Wirtschaftsprüfung, Steuerberatung, Rechtsberatung und Notariat täglich bis zu 20% der Arbeitszeit. Das einzelne Aufrufen unterschiedlicher Datenbanken und Datenquellen sowie die Konsolidierung der verschiedenen Suchergebnissen zählt zu den mühsamen und ineffizienten Aufgaben. Auch vor dem Hintergrund, dass sich etwa 42% des Kanzleiwissens in Dokumente und Dateien verbergen, gibt es einen enormen Handlungsbedarf bei der Optimierung der täglichen Wissensbeschaffung und Wissensteilung in den Kanzleien.